Another important factor was the “Millet system” of the Ottoman Empire. Within the framework of millet system, different ethnic or religious groups in the Ottoman Empire were allowed to organize their own tradition, legal systems, education and cultural activities themselves, thus preserving their originality.
Interaction between Turkish and Ladino
Ladino during the later stages of the Empire
Ladino language suffered serious tremors from two important developments; the first one was the opening of Alliance Israélite Universelle schools.
Ladino during the early republican era
The changes in the language and the culture were also reflected in the field of printing. In the first years of the Turkish Republic, El Telegrafo and El Tyempo were published in Judeo-Spanish using Hebrew letters, while La Boz de Oriente was published half in Latin letters and half in Hebrew letters. A latter newspaper La Boz de Turkiye was not printed in Hebrew letters but rather printed half in Turkish and half in Judeo-Spanish with some French content.
This article was largely based on Önder Kaya’s article on Shalom